Manuscript Preparation

1. Organize the paper following these major headings: Title, Author(s) and address (es), Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods for experimental study or Methodology for non-experimental study, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgment, and Literature Cited. The Literature Cited should substantially consist of articles published in current content-covered or peer-reviewed journals.

2. Type the entire manuscript double-spaced on a short white bond paper (8.5x11 in) on one side only with 2.5 cm margins all around using a Times New Roman font size of 12 References, Acknowledgments, Table Titles, and Figure Legends should be typed double-spaced or numbered consecutively on all pages including title page, figures, and tables.

3. Leave two spaces before and after the major headings and two spaces before and after the sub-headings. Do not use footnotes rather use endnotes if required by the discipline.

4. Spell out acronyms or unfamiliar abbreviations when these are mentioned for the first time in the text.

5. Write the scientific names of species completely with author(s) when it is first mentioned in the text and without author in succeeding references. Scientific names should be written in italics or bold face.

6. Do not spell out numbers unless they are used to start a sentence.

7. Use the metric system only or the International System of Units. Use abbreviations of units only beside numerals (e.g. 6 m); otherwise, spell out the units (e.g. kilometers from here). Do not use plural forms or periods for abbreviations of units. Use the bar for compound units (e.g. 1 kg/ha/ yr). Place a zero before the decimal in numbers less than 1 (e.g.0.25).

8. When preparing Tables and Figures, consider the journal’s printed page of 5.75 in x 8.5 in and the reduction that will be necessary. Titles of Tables and Captions of Figures should be as short as possible and understandable without referring to the text. Captions of Figures should be typed double-spaced on a separate sheet. Figures should consist only of simple line drawings, computer-generated graphics or good quality black and white photographs. Photographs should be original figures that are not electronically enhanced and submitted in a jpeg or png file. Label of Figures should be of such a size so that these are still legible even after reducing the size by as much as 50%. Use preferably Adobe Photoshop CS, Adobe InDesign CS and or PDF computer-generated graphics.

9. Cite references in the text as author (year). Writing of et al. in the list of references/ literature cited is discouraged but instead all the names of authors are mentioned; references in press as (author, in press) and unpublished reference as (author, unpublished. data or author, pers. comm.). If two or more references are cited, arrange them by year.

10. Manuscript should be as concise as the subject and research method permit, generally not to exceed 4,000 words, single-space.

11. To promote anonymous review, authors should not identify themselves directly or indirectly in their papers or in experimental test instruments included in the submission. Single authors should not use the editorial “we”.

12. A cover page should show the title of the paper, all authors’ names, titles and affiliations, email addresses, and any acknowledgements.

Pagination: All pages, including tables, appendices and references, should be serially numbered. Major sections should be numbered in Roman numerals. Subsections should not be numbered.

Numbers: Spell out numbers from one to ten, except when used in tables and lists, and when used with mathematical, statistical, scientific, or technical units and quantities, such as distances, weights and measures.

Percentage and Decimal Fractions: In nontechnical copy, use the word percent in the text.

Hyphens: Use a hyphen to join unit modifiers or to clarify usage. For example: a cross-sectional-equation; re-form. See a dictionary for correct usage.

Data Availability: A line immediately following the Keyword identifiers should indicate whether the data are available.

Manuscript Content Guide

Abstract/ Introduction
An abstract of about 200 words should be presented on a separate page immediately preceding the text. The Abstract should concisely inform the reader of five vital information: introduction of the topic, chief purpose, objective, method, results and conclusions. Only recommendations with universal or wider application could be included but optional only. Keywords and the Data Availability statements should follow the Abstract. The text of the paper should start with a section labelled “Introduction,” which provides more details about the paper’s purpose, motivation, methodology, and findings. Both the Abstract and the Introduction should be relatively nontechnical yet clear enough for an informed reader to understand the manuscript’s contribution. The manuscript’s title but neither the author’s name nor other identification designations, should appear on the Abstract page.

The abstract must be followed by keywords in four parts: discipline of the study, concepts/variables, methods, process, and geography of the study, country, and continent.

Citations: In-text citations are made using an author-year format. Cited works must correspond to the list of works listed in the “Literature Cited” section.
    1. In the text, works are cited as follows: author’s last name and year, without comma, in parentheses.
    2. For cited works that include more than one work by an author (or same co – authors) that is published in the             same year, the suffix a, b, etc., is to follow the date in the within-text citations and in the “Literature Cited”             section.
    3. When the author’s name is mentioned in the text, it need not be repeated in the citation.
    4. Citations to institutional works should use acronyms or short titles where practicable.
    5. If the paper refers to statutes, legal treatises, or court cases, citations acceptable in law reviews should be             used.

Conclusions should briefly answer the objectives of the study. They are not repetitions of the discussions but are judgments of the results obtained.

Literature Cited
Every manuscript must include a “Literature Cited” section that contains only those works cited within the text. Each entry should contain all information necessary or unambiguous identification of the published work. Writers are advised to use references which are traceable online, with Digital Object Identifier, indexed by international databases, written by authors or agencies and not links. The URL must be written at the end of the bibliographic entry and provides the date of retrieval and the link. Sources must be at least three years old except sources of theories, historical documents or chronologic presentations of the literature review. Writers must refrain from using unpublished thesis or dissertation because a research is never finished unless published.